By Frank McLynn

ISBN-10: 1448114535

ISBN-13: 9781448114535

If ever there has been a yr of future for the British Isles, 1066 should have a powerful declare. King Harold confronted invasion not only from William and the Normans around the English Channel yet from the Dane, King Harald Hardrada. prior to he confronted the Normans at Hastings in October, he had defeated the Danes at York and Stamford Bridge in September.

In this beautifully researched examine, Frank McLynn overturns long-accepted myths, exhibiting how William’s victory on the conflict of Hastings used to be now not, in reality, a walk in the park, and arguing that Harald Hardrada was once really the best warrior of the 3. this can be a masterly examine, and divulges the reality to be extra attention-grabbing than the myths surrounding this pivotal yr in heritage.

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Extra resources for 1066: Year Of Three Battles

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The most famous soldier of his generation, King Richard Lionheart, was killed at the siege of the castle of Chalus in 1199 by a crossbow bolt which struck him in the shoulder, and left a wound which be­ came infected. To span these stonger bows, a stirrup was added to the stock in the 12th century, and a belt with a hook could be worn by the operator to enable his upper body as well as his arms to take part in drawing the bow. By the 14th century, a belt such as this, improved by incorporating a pulley ("Samson's belt") or a "goats' foot" lever might be used.

The skull of this helmet consisted of a brow-band (572 X 87mm), a nosc-to-nape band (493 X 87mm), two lateral bands (125 X 82mm, and probably 82 X 82mm), and four infill plates, rivcttcd together. The dimensions of these bands suggest that they had an earlier history as lorica plates. There seems to be no other reason why two of the four bands should have the same width, and the other two also have the same width as one another. It is noteworthy that two 5th century spangenhelms in the Hofjagd- und Rustkammer, Vienna (A.

4 Robinson (1980) 5 Burgess (1953a/b, 1957, 1958, 1960) and Smith (1959). 6 Oddy (1977). 30 SECTION T W O appearance of many medieval mail links. e. pulling a rod, filed to a taper at one end, through a succession of holes in a draw-plate, each slightly smaller than the one before. This produces wire of uniform cross-section (not necessarily circular, of course). The draw-plate is first mentioned by Thcophilus, the 11th century writer on mctalwork for churches, but may well be much earlier 7 . Excavated mail is usually too severely corroded for its method of manufacture to be deduced, but the Coppcrgate mail (8th century) was found in unusually good condition, and its consistent diameter suggests drawn wire 8 .

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