By Sheila Blackburn
The character of sweating and the origins of low pay laws are of basic social, monetary and ethical significance. even supposing tricky to outline, sweating, in accordance with a pick out committee demonstrated to enquire the difficulty, was once characterized by means of lengthy hours, bad operating stipulations and chiefly through low pay. by way of the start of the 20 th century the govt. envisioned that as much as a 3rd of the British group might be classed as sweated labour, and for the 1st time in a century started to take into consideration introducing laws to handle the problem.Whilst historians have written a lot on unemployment, poverty aid and different such similar social and business concerns, fairly little paintings has been performed at the factors, quantity and personality of sweated labour. That paintings which has been performed has tended to target the tailoring trades in London and Leeds, and fails to provide a large evaluate of the phenomenon and the way it constructed and altered over time.In distinction, this quantity adopts a extensive nationwide and long-run procedure, supplying a extra holistic realizing of the topic. Rejecting the argument that sweating used to be purely a London or gender comparable challenge, it paints an image of a frequent and always moving trend of sweated labour around the kingdom, that was once to ultimately convince the govt. to introduce laws within the type of the 1909 Trades Board Act. It used to be this act, meant to strive against sweated labour, which was once to shape the cornerstone of low pay laws, and the barrier to the advent of a minimal salary, for the subsequent ninety years.
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Extra resources for A Fair Days Wage for a Fair Days Work? (Studies in Labour History)
It excluded lace making. Silk mills were exempted from the Act’s provision for children under nine. L. Hutchins and A. Harrison, A History of Factory Legislation (London, 1966; ﬁrst published 1903), pp. 40–41. 3 Grainger, ‘Report on the manufactures and trades of Nottingham, Derby, Leicester, Birmingham and London’, p. 555. , pp. 800–805. A Fair Day’s Wage for a Fair Day’s Work? 16 investigations provided positive evidence that fashionable junkets and other ‘high’ society functions such as weddings and funerals, resulted in young girls having to sew through the night to meet the last minute rush of orders.
376. 22 The Times, 31 October 1843. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) deﬁnes to ‘Jew’ as: ‘To cheat or overreach, in the way attributed to Jewish traders or usurers. Also, to drive a hard bargain, and … to haggle … to beat down in price … Hence Jewing. A. , OED, Volume 8 (Oxford, 1989), p. 229. 23 Thomas Attwood utilised the phrase, ‘A fair day’s wages for a fair day’s work’ when he presented the Chartists’ petition to Parliament: Hansard (Commons), 14 June 1839, col. 224. Thomas Carlyle popularised the motto in his Past and Present (1872; ﬁrst published 1843), pp.
72 The passage for each woman was estimated at £15. Although ﬁgures are unreliable, Herbert’s scheme was widely considered to be ineffective. J. Hammerton, Emigrant Gentlewomen: Genteel Poverty and Female Emigration, 1830–1914 (London, 1979), p. 107. For a more positive account of emigration schemes, see: G. Howells, ‘“ On account of their disreputable characters”: parish assisted emigration from rural England, 1834–1860’, History, 88 (2003), pp. 587–605. J. and D. 76 II In the short term, though, Mayhew’s exposé brought the plight of the sweated to the notice of the Christian Socialists.
A Fair Days Wage for a Fair Days Work? (Studies in Labour History) by Sheila Blackburn
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