By Richard J. Reid
Up-to-date and revised to emphasize long term views on present matters dealing with the continent, the recent second variation of A heritage of recent Africa recounts the complete breadth of Africa's political, fiscal, and social background over the last centuries.Adopts a long term method of present matters, stressing the significance of nineteenth-century and deeper indigenous dynamics in explaining Africa's later twentieth-century challengesPlaces a better specialize in African organisation, particularly throughout the colonial encounterIncludes extra in-depth insurance of non-Anglophone AfricaOffers improved insurance of the post-colonial period to take account of modern advancements, together with the clash in Darfur and the political unrest of 2011 in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya
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Extra info for A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)
Whether Oyo was already in terminal decline, and the jihad merely hastened the process, or whether the empire might have recovered had it not been for the Muslim revolution, there can be little doubt that the latter was a significant factor in the destruction of a polity which had dominated the area of the Benin Gap and a swathe of the southern savannah for the previous two centuries. In 1817, a provincial revolt in Ilorin, in the north of the empire, erupted with the assistance of some Fulani jihadists, precipitating not simply the collapse of Oyo but a series of wars which would engulf the Yoruba for much of the nineteenth century.
A great many Yoruba had entered the nineteenth century united within the Oyo empire, but Oyo was a state on the brink of collapse. It had been politically weakened by internal division and the dilution of the authority of the alafin, or king, while in economic terms it was in a precarious position following the abolition of the slave trade: European buyers at the coast had dried up, as had the goods with which Oyo traders had purchased horses from northern merchants. Meanwhile, the Islamic jihad which had erupted in 1804 among the Hausa and Fulani further north – examined in Chapter 6 – posed a major threat to the empire.
Control of trade and its benefits would increasingly drive interlacustrine relations, while trade itself – as in Atlantic Africa – would have major social and political consequences from the 1840s onward. Most of the states noted above would strive to become involved in this commerce: only Rwanda and Burundi resisted the temptation for much of the nineteenth century, giving rise to their contemporary reputations for self-imposed isolation and hostility to all outsiders. If some of the more remarkable developments in the lacustrine region involved political centralization and the predominance of the territorial state, the opposite was true in other parts of central-eastern Africa.
A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World) by Richard J. Reid
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