By Frederick Copleston

ISBN-10: 0385468458

ISBN-13: 9780385468459

Conceived initially as a major presentation of the improvement of philosophy for Catholic seminary scholars, Frederick Copleston's nine-volume A background Of Philosophy has journeyed a ways past the modest function of its writer to common acclaim because the most sensible heritage of philosophy in English.
Copleston, an Oxford Jesuit of large erudition who as soon as tangled with A. J. Ayer in a fabled debate concerning the life of God and the potential for metaphysics, knew that seminary scholars have been fed a woefully insufficient nutrition of theses and proofs, and that their familiarity with such a lot of history's nice thinkers was once decreased to simplistic caricatures. Copleston got down to redress the incorrect via writing a whole heritage of Western philosophy, one crackling with incident and highbrow pleasure -- and person who provides complete position to every philosopher, proposing his suggestion in a superbly rounded demeanour and exhibiting his hyperlinks to people who went earlier than and to those that got here after him.
The results of Copleston's prodigious labors is a background of philosophy that's not likely ever to be exceeded. concept journal summed up the overall contract between students and scholars alike whilst it reviewed Copleston's A background of Philosophy as "broad-minded and target, complete and scholarly, unified and good proportioned... we won't suggest [it] too highly."

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Extra resources for A History of Philosophy, Volume 3: Late Medieval and Renaissance Philosophy: Ockham, Francis Bacon, and the Beginning of the Modern World

Example text

I say, therefore, that intuitive knowledge is proper individual knowledge . . ' 8 It is clear that Ockham is not speaking simply of sensation: he is speaking of an intellectual intuition of an individual thing, which is caused by that thing and not by anything else. Moreover, intuition for him is not confined to intuition of sensible or material things. ' 'Aristotle says that nothing of those things which are external is understood, unless first it falls under sense; and those things are only sensibles according to him.

But we have to be careful of our way of speaking. We ought not to say that 'Plato and Socrates agree (share) in something or in some things, but that they agree (are alike) by some things, that is, by themselves and that Socrates agrees with (cont'mit cum) Plato, not in something, but by something, namely himself'. 2 In other words, there is no nature common to Socrates and Plato, in which they come together or share or agree; but the nature which is Socrates and the nature which is Plato are alike.

We may be able to establish that a given thing has a cause; but it does not follow that we thereby gain a simple and proper knowledge of the ~hing w~ich is its cause. The reason of this is that the knowledge ~n questIo~ c~~es from intuition; and the intuition of one thing IS not the mtUltIon of another thing. tions in natural theology; but what 1 want to emphasize at the moment is that Ockham did not deny that a causal argument can have any validity. , 35. 5, N. , 3. B. 72 THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY OCKHAM (3) the one without the other; but, given empirical reality as it is, one can discern causal connections.

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