By H Nifenecker

ISBN-10: 0750307439

ISBN-13: 9780750307437

This publication describes the fundamental wisdom in nuclear, neutron, and reactor physics important for figuring out the main and implementation of accelerator pushed subcritical nuclear reactors (ADSRs), sometimes called hybrid reactors.

Since hybrid reactors could give a contribution to destiny nuclear strength creation, the booklet starts off with a dialogue of the final power challenge. It proceeds by means of constructing the simple physics of neutron reactors, together with the fundamental nuclear physics concerned. The e-book then provides computational tools, with certain emphasis on Monte Carlo equipment. It examines the specifics of ADSR, ranging from the neutron spallation resource to security features. a radical dialogue is given at the dimension of hybrid reactors, which follows very varied constraints from that of severe reactors. the prospect to optimize the resource value is tested intimately. The dialogue of the gas evolution follows with its relevance to security and to the waste creation and incineration. The stipulations for having a continuing reactivity over sufficiently lengthy lapse of time also are mentioned. The publication additionally evaluates a few sensible designs which have been proposed. eventually, the final bankruptcy offers with the exam of proposed and attainable waste transmutation guidelines and the function which can be performed through ADSR during this context. the capability benefit of the Thorium cycle is mentioned in addition to diversified eventualities which may be used to enforce it.

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Extra info for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (Series in Fundamental and Applied Nuclear Physics)

Example text

The MSBR [50] project has produced a rather detailed design for a large molten salt reactor, with interesting breeding possibilities. As an alternative to the solid fuel U–Pu breeders we have studied the potential of the Th–U cycle with MSR reactors. The first fissile loads of the 1 GWe MSR are made of industrial plutonium obtained from spent PWR fuel reprocessing. Ã The initial plutonium load is replaced by 233 U. Every year, all 5 year old available plutonium is used for new MSRs. This is not sufficient to ensure the required rate of increase.

10. Evolution of the 233 U stockpile in the case of deployment of a Th–U molten salt breeder park. reactors according to their initial loads. The lifetime of the reactors was assumed to be 40 years, which explains the decrease of the ‘Th–Pu’ reactors after 2070. 10 shows the evolution of the 233 U stockpile outside the reactors. The plutonium stockpile is not displayed since all the plutonium produced is, after 5 years of cooling, used for new Th–Pu reactors. As for the U–Pu cycle, the amount of available 233 U measures the flexibility of the system which could be used for fission product transmutation and/or smaller production units.

Aside from criticality accidents, ADSRs are subject to risks similar to those of critical reactors, such as solid fuel core melt-down, radioactive leaks into the environment, etc. In addition, the coupling between the accelerator and the subcritical medium may be the origin of weaknesses with respect to safety, such as window breaking or propagation of radioactivity through the accelerator. For large subcriticality levels of more than a few per cent, the delayed neutron fraction has no influence on the safety of the reactor.

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Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (Series in Fundamental and Applied Nuclear Physics) by H Nifenecker

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