By Xiuli Wang
The function of typical gasoline in assembly the realm strength call for has been expanding as a result of its abundance, versatility, and fresh burning nature. accordingly, new fuel exploration, box improvement, and construction actions are less than method. this can be very true in areas the place usual fuel was once (until lately) labelled as 'stranded'. simply because a good portion of traditional gasoline reserves world-wide can be found throughout our bodies of water, gasoline transportation turns into a topic. we're facing many specific matters and dealing with many demanding situations within the complete 'food chain' (upstream to midstream and downstream) of common fuel engineering. This necessitates a bridge of the know-how gaps in a couple of very important components: the original new applied sciences similar to diversified interpretation of 3-D seismic in ordinary gasoline exploration; the explicit necessities in fuel good drilling; the necessity for the hydraulically fracturing of excessive permeability gasoline good to avoid the wear yet most significantly to minimize turbulence because of excessive good deliverability; usual gasoline sea-going transportation resembling liquefied usual gasoline (LNG) and compressed usual fuel (CNG); fuel conversion and garage; and, replacement and competing strength resources. All of those new concerns and demanding situations haven't been addressed extensive in any present books. one more reason why we positioned this publication jointly relies on our observations of younger execs and graduate scholars. With the facility of present computing expertise, many businesses are supplying diversified software program to resolve engineering difficulties. Many younger engineers and scholars are stable at operating courses and plotting appealing graphs with no realizing what the numbers and figures suggest. someway humans have misplaced their primary talents to take on difficulties with no utilizing a working laptop or computer. right here, along with addressing the complicated engineering concerns on the topic of common fuel, we additionally offer equations in addition to examples and targeted calculation systems of primary chemical and petroleum engineering difficulties. This ebook can function a reference booklet for all engineers within the strength enterprise in addition to a textbook for college students in petroleum and chemical engineering curricula and within the education departments of a giant team of businesses.
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Additional info for Advanced Natural Gas Engineering
New York: Prentice Hall. , Y. Kh. A. Alikhan. 2000. Compressibility factor for gas condensate reservoirs. Paper SPE 59702. M. and A. Elkamel. 2001. The accuracy of predicting compressibility factor for sour natural gases. Petroleum Science and Technology 19 (5&6): 711–731. Guo, B. and A. Ghalambor. 2005. Natural Gas Engineering Handbook. Houston TX: Gulf Publishing Company. R. and L. Yarborough. 1973. A new equation of state for Z-Factor calculations. Oil & Gas (June): 82. B. 1936. Density of hydrocarbon gases and vapors at high temperature and pressure.
It is defined as the ratio of the real volume (the volume actually occupied by a gas at a given p and T) to the ideal volume (volume it would occupy had it behaved as an ideal gas). It is a measure of how a real gas deviates from ideality. The gas deviation factor is an important gas property and it is involved in calculating gas properties such as the formation volume factor, density, compressibility, and viscosity. All these properties are necessary in calculating initial gas-in-place (and, thus, reserves), predicting future gas production, and designing production tubing and pipelines (Elsharkawy and Elkamel, 2001).
9. OPTION 2—Calculate the pseudocritical properties from Figure 1–9. 697. Therefore, from Figure 1–9, Tpc = 390 R and ppc = 668 psi. These must be corrected by the inserts in Figure 1–9. Thus, Tpc = 390 – 2 – 2 + 20 = 406 R ppc = 668 – 2 + 9 + 92 = 767 psi. After adjusted for N2, CO2, and H2S, respectively, the values of Tpc and ppc are 406 R and 767 psi, compared with 407 R and 777 psi, as calculated explicitly in Table 1–4. To use the Z graph, these values must be adjusted again using Eqs. 8).
Advanced Natural Gas Engineering by Xiuli Wang
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