By Norbert Berkowitz

ISBN-10: 0120919508

ISBN-13: 9780120919505

An advent to Coal Technology thoroughly describes coal expertise study and improvement. Coal is a vital basic gas through the global and study has unfold from coal liquefaction and gasification to applied sciences for constructing fresh coal. The ebook is split into components. half I makes a speciality of the formation and basic houses of coal. half II addresses contemporary advancements and critical technical procedures comparable to the practise and combustion options of unpolluted coal, environmental administration of coal, and speedy pyrolysis. This moment variation builds upon and updates the profitable therapy provided in Dr. Berkowitzs esteemed 1979 booklet.

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West Germany. Large points show statistically weighted averages for each 50-m depth interval. (After Kutzner [59] ; by permission of M. and R. \: - -C CL '£ 1 000 03 — ~~ — ~Ί H ·· 1 1 1 • 0) H 1 r l a: i znn Bed Moisture, % Fig. 2 The variation of bed moisture contents of high-rank coals with depth of burial ; Saar region,1West Germany. Data relate to 10 boreholes. (After Damberger et al. [60]; by permission of M. and R. 0 M o i s t u r e , % daf 0 ] ν \ J 8θ 85 Carbon, % daf Γ \" *M 1 fflu 90 7500 8000 8500 C a l o r i f i c Value, kcal/kg ash-free Fig.

The forms of moisture encompassed by these methods are (a) "bulk" water (sometimes also termed "superficial moisture"), which is present in large cracks and capillaries and possesses the normal vapor pressure of water, and 6 All foreign standards are available in the United States only from the American National Standards Institute, New York, New York 10018. 1) and has a vapor pressure corresponding to its adsorbed state. However, since most coals, particularly those of low rank, may also contain significant quantities of chemisorbed water and, in addition, begin to generate water by thermal decomposition at temperatures as low as 150-160°C (see Chapter 6), care must be taken that the conditions under which moisture contents are determined do not encourage formation of water.

2 The variation of vitrinite reflectivity with rank. The data points shown in this diagram have been compiled from several independent studies reported in the technical literature and cover European as well as North American coals. For high-rank coals, in which some degree of optical anisotropy is commonly observed, this mean is computed from the maximum readings. 2 shows how ,Rmax (in oil) varies with carbon contents, and Fig. 3 illustrates the effects of anisotropy with a plot of Rmin and Rmax against average reflectance.

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