By Brian Duignan

ISBN-10: 1615301410

ISBN-13: 9781615301416

Even earlier than the unfold of Christianity all through Europe, members started to call for a scientific strategy to view the worlda approach to replacement order for chaos. Supplanting legendary factors with these according to statement, early Greeks and a few in their contemporaries sought to understand worldly phenomena when it comes to extra common truths. This e-book introduces readers to the figures instrumental in enforcing this sophisticated mind set, together with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. It additionally examines the influence of those thinkers at the significant religions of the time, specifically, Judaism and Christianity.

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Moreover, if Plato’s Seventh Letter is to be believed (its authorship is disputed), the treatment of Socrates by both the oligarchy and the democracy made Plato wary of entering public life, as someone of his background would normally have done. After the death of Socrates, Plato may have traveled extensively in Greece, Italy, and Egypt, though on such particulars the evidence is uncertain. The followers of Pythagoras (c. 580–c. 500 BCE) seem to have influenced his philosophical program (they are criticized in the Phaedo and the Republic but receive respectful mention in the Philebus).

It is difficult to be sure. But, by Socrates’ own admission, the suspicion that anything he says might be a pose undermines his ability to persuade the jurors of his good intentions. His eirôneia may even have lent support to one of the accusations made against him, that he 38 The Philosophy of Socrates corrupted the young. For if Socrates really did engage in eirôneia, and if his youthful followers delighted in and imitated this aspect of his character, then to that extent he encouraged them to become dissembling and untrustworthy, just like himself.

He remains, for all of us, a challenge to complacency and a model of integrity. 50 Chapter 3 The Philosophy of Plato P lato, together with his teacher Socrates and his student Aristotle, laid the philosophical foundations of Western culture. Building on the demonstration by Socrates that those regarded as experts in ethical matters did not have the understanding necessary for a good human life, Plato introduced the idea that their mistakes were due to their not engaging properly with a class of entities he called forms, chief examples of which were Justice, Beauty, and Equality.

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